ILAE Logo

TUBEROUS SCLEROSIS

Background

The background EEG may be normal, or may show focal slowing over cortical tubers. In the presence of epileptic spasms or generalized seizure types, the background may show widespread slowing or hypsarrhythmia.

Interictal

The interictal EEG may be normal or may show focal interictal spikes, polyspikes or spike-and-wave in the location of cortical tubers.

Multi-focal independent spikes or generalized spike-and-wave (usually < 3 Hz) can be seen in those with multiple tubers or those with generalized seizure types.

Hypsarrhythmia can be seen in those with epileptic spasms.

Activation

EEG abnormality is enhanced by sleep deprivation and in sleep. Obtaining a sleep EEG is important in infants at risk of epileptic spasms, as the awake EEG may be normal, and abnormality may only be present in sleep.

Ictal

The presence of focal, rhythmic epileptiform discharges is the most characteristic feature of the scalp EEG in patients with tuberous sclerosis who have focal seizures. The focal ictal EEG change shows spatial correlation with the cortical tuber from which seizures arise. Cortical tubers that are not accessible by scalp EEG may have poorly localized ictal change on scalp EEG, with patterns that may include subtle attenuation, or rhythmic slowing.

If epileptic spasms or generalized seizures are present, the ictal EEG associated with these seizure types may be seen.

Feedback | Home | Contact Us | Privacy | Log In For Videos
Creative Commons License
This website is owned by the International League Against Epilepsy. Text on this website, last updated April 28, 2019,
is available under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License,
EXCEPTING all videos and images, which remain copyrighted by the International League Against Epilepsy.