Traumatic brain injury can cause acute seizures at the time of the injury, as well as epilepsy as a longer-term complication. It is one of the most common causes of epilepsy due to acquired brain injury, especially in early adulthood. There is a relationship between the severity of injury and the likelihood of developing epilepsy - the more severe the injury, the higher the incidence of epilepsy developing.
The clinical presentation of traumatic brain injury depends on the extent and location of the traumatic brain injury, age, and associated factor such as raised intracranial pressure from cerebral oedema. Acute seizures can occur in the first 24 hours of the injury, or within the first week. Acute management centers both on management of seizures, but also management of the traumatic brain injury. If epilepsy occurs as a long-term consequence, there is typically a latent period, and then re-emergence of seizures months or sometimes years after the injury. Cognitive and neurological impairments may co-occur as a consequence of the injury.