Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury can occur due to many causes and at any age in life. It can cause acute seizures at the time of the injury, as well as epilepsy as a longer-term complication.
The clinical presentation of hypoxic-ischemic injury depends on the extent of hypoxia-ischemia, location of the injury within the brain, age, the underlying cause, and associated factors such as raised intracranial pressure from cerebral edema. Acute seizures typically occur in the first 24 hours after the injury. Acute management centers both on management of seizures, and also management of the hypoxic-ischemic injury. If epilepsy occurs as a post-injury complication, there is typically a latent period, and then re-emergence of seizures months later. Cognitive and neurological impairments may occur as a consequence of the hypoxic-ischemic injury.