In biotinidase deficiency, the endogenous recycling of biotin is impaired. Epilepsy is frequent, often starting after the first 3 or 4 months of life, and often as epileptic spasms; optic atrophy and hearing loss are also often seen. Clues to the diagnosis are alopecia and dermatitis. The refractory seizures respond promptly to small doses of biotin. In holocarboxylase synthase deficiency, symptoms start during the neonatal period. Seizures are less frequent, occurring in 25-50% of all children.
Cerebral folate deficiency is defined as a neurological syndrome associated with low CSF 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5MTHF), the active folate metabolite, in the presence of normal folate metabolism outside the nervous system. Cerebral folate deficiency can result from either disturbed folate transport or from increased folate turnover within the central nervous system. Typical features manifest from 4 months of age, with irritability, sleep disturbance, developmental delay, cerebellar ataxia, spastic paraplegia, deceleration of head growth, progressive hearing and visual impairment, dyskinesia and epilepsy (seen in one third of children). Neuroimaging shows progressive atrophy and demyelination. Causes include mutations in receptor-mediated folate receptor protein 1 (FR1), folate antagonists (irreversible binding or antibodies that block folate binding to FR1) and other causes of functional impairment in FR1. Secondary forms of cerebral folate deficiency have been recognized during chronic use of anti-folate (including anti-seizure) medications and in various conditions such as Rett syndrome and Aicardi-Goutières syndrome. Treatment is with folinic acid, to normalize CSF 5MTHF values.
Disorders of creatine metabolism comprise three different defects: impaired creatine transport into the brain in the X-linked creatine transporter defect and impaired creatine synthesis in GAMT (guanidinoacetate methyltransferase) and AGAT (arginineglycine amidinotransferase) deficiencies. Only GAMT deficiency is regularly associated with epilepsy, which is often refractory to conventional treatment. Creatine supplementation alone frequently leads to improvement. Several seizure types may occur. Infants can present with West syndrome. Atypical absences, atonic and generalised convulsive seizures are common later in childhood.
This metabolic disorder is an allelic condition to pyridoxine dependent epilepsy with similar biochemical markers. Individuals may have a partial pyridoxine response, then may require co-therapy with folinic acid. Research is underway into the mechanism for folinic acid response. In CSF studies of biogenic amines, an unknown peak (peak X) is seen.
The predominant seizure type in this metabolic disorder is absence seizures; myoclonic seizures and focal seizures are also seen. Around 10% of patients with early onset absence seizures and 5% of patients with epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures have GLUT1 deficiency. A strong clue is the presence of paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia in family members (or in the affected individual), which may be worse in the morning or after a period of fasting and relieved by carbohydrate. The ketogenic diet is the treatment of choice for GLUT1 deficiency and may result in seizure control and potentially improve cognitive outcome. Diagnosis may be suspected if a reduced CSF-blood glucose ratio (< 0.46) is found. The diagnosis can be confirmed by looking for reduced glucose transport across the erythrocyte membrane (which carries the same glucose transporter), and by mutation analysis of the solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 1 (SLC2A1) gene.
Epilepsy (with prominent myoclonic seizures) is a common feature of a number of mitochondrial disorders including:
Peroxisomal disorders are an uncommon cause of epilepsy, usually presenting with seizures in early life, in a neonate or infant with severe neurological impairment. Malformations of cortical development may co-occur in specific peroxisomal disorders, including Zellweger syndrome and neonatal adrenoleucodystrophy. Focal seizures, generalised seizures and epileptic spasms may occur. Diagnosis is through identification of abnormal levels of very long chain fatty acids.
In pyridoxine dependent epilepsy, there is a defect in α-aminoadipic semialdehyde (AASA) dehydrogenase, with accumulation of products that inactivate pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP). Biochemical markers include increased AASA (specific) and pipecolic acid (non specific) in urine, plasma and CSF (even on treatment). The diagnosis is supported by finding a mutation in the antiquitin gene (ALDH7A1, chromosome 5q31).
In pyridoxine 5' phosphate oxidase (PNPO) deficiency, biochemical markers may be unhelpful with only subtle findings. Pyridoxine supplementation is ineffective, the patients require PLP to ameliorate the neurological condition.
For both pyridoxine dependent epilepsy and PNPO deficiency, the severity of the accompanying epilepsy can vary from severe early onset epilepsies (with suppression-burst patterns) to intractable focal seizures. Myoclonic seizures and unusual rotatory or bobbing eye movements with head nodding are distinctive seizure features. Any child with onset of intractable seizures under the age of 2 years warrants a trial of pyridoxine and pyridoxal-5-phosphate, for a minimum of one month. Neonates may be mistakenly thought to have hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, as they may be in poor condition at birth, have lactic acidosis and a history of fetal distress in labour. Preterm delivery is common.